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GEOLOGY and HYDROLOGY BASICS FOR YOU

 


Africa is made up of a vast stable crystalline basement of very old rocks, mainly of Precambrian age. Superimposed on this basement are later, largely flat-lying cover successions; along the East, North, and West coasts there are sediments of Mesozoic and Tertiary age, deposited in marginal marine basins.


An aquifer is a wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer.

 


Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology.

Typically, groundwater is thought of as liquid water flowing through shallow aquifers, but technically it can also include soil moisture, permafrost (frozen soil), immobile water in very low permeability bedrock, and deep geothermal or oil formation water. Aquifers may occur at various depths. Those closer to the surface are not only more likely to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are also more likely to be topped up by the local rainfall. Many desert areas have limestone hills or mountains within them or close to them that can be exploited as groundwater resources.

The beach provides a model to help visualize an aquifer. If a hole is dug into the sand, very wet or saturated sand will be located at a shallow depth. This hole is a crude well, the wet sand represents an aquifer, and the level to which the water rises in this hole represents the water table.

An aquifer is a body of groundwater under ground!


Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, natural gas, or petroleum. Drilling for the exploration of the nature of the material underground (for instance in search of metallic ore) is best described as borehole drilling, or 'drilling'.

Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) is defined by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) as “an adaptive drilling process used to more precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore." The objectives of MPD are “to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly."

Geoscience Products and Services limited has undertaken numerous drilling contracts in East Africa, and has successfully drilled through all geological formation types making it a participant in this area with one of the largest databases in the region.

 

 
     

 

OPERATIONS OFFICE & MAIN WORKSHOP - old naivasha ROAD, NAIVASHA TOWN

find us on the old Naivasha road, one kilometre before the moi south lake road junction (from Mai Mahiu direction) 

P. O. Box 0436  POSTAL CODE 00621, VILLAGE MARKET - NAIROBI, Kenya

Tel +254 (20) 248-4635 Mobile: +254 (722) 893 338 / +254 (735) 246 249

email: info@gpsdriller.com

 

 

We have worked successfully on all geological formation types in the region.

 

 

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